While conducting research, one of the essential things that need to be acknowledged is research ethics. Before explaining research ethics and what they involve, let’s look at the meaning of the word “ethic” as explained by Mariam-Webster dictionary:
While doing qualitative content analysis, researchers check different feedback - words, ideas, concepts used by the target groups, research participants, and look for the meaning behind that feedback. By analyzing the relationship between the feedbacks, they find trends that let them draw a conclusion. It is the interpretation process of the meaning behind the speech, newspaper article, TV show, etc. There are two approaches to content analysis:
Research projects are done using various methods, as well as by different individuals. Sometimes companies hire researchers to conduct research for them, and in some cases, they opt for their own employees who already work in the same field the research carried on. In other words, employees become researchers in their working area. They are called expert researchers because they have more in-depth insights into the issues and may have more effective results with the research.
Whether written by a scholar, student, or writer, a written piece goes through several stages before it is ready to be published or handed over to somebody. The last step in this process is proofreading. It mainly involves rereading and checking errors in the text. They can be minor spelling and punctuation errors or grammatical mistakes. It is essentially part of the editing process. Editing text means changing content, adding or removing information, making structural changes, as well as finding and correcting punctuation mistakes, typos, etc.
Based on the purpose and available resources, researchers conduct empirical or non-empirical research. Researchers employ both of these methods in various fields using qualitative, quantitative, or secondary data. Let's look at the characteristics of empirical research and see how it is different from non-empirical research.
Historical research is a process of collecting and interpreting data about past events or ideas in order to find how they affected the present events and ideas. It studies possible reasons behind certain events to explain their influence on the events that followed. Historical research may not just help to figure out connections between past and present events, it can also provide the researchers with information regarding possible future events. In his book “Historical Research: A Guide” (2002), W.H.McDowell defines historical research as:
Depending on the purpose and goals of the research, researchers carry out basic research or applied research. Basic research, sometimes called pure research or fundamental research, aims to prove or expand theories regarding the phenomenon. In contrast, applied research uses scientific knowledge available such as technologies or techniques, to achieve a result on the study. It is a practical application of science. Pure research seeks answers to theoretical problems. Applied research, at the other end of the spectrum, tries to solve practical issues.
Meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines multiple similar or related studies and makes connections between them. In other words, it is a process that integrates different research results. According to the Mariam-Webster dictionary,
“Meta-analysis is a quantitative statistical analysis of several separate but similar experiments or studies in order to test the pooled data for statistical significance.”