The article contains information about the definition of a survey, its different methods and types, survey design, benefits and drawbacks offered by surveys, and survey software. 

Survey Methods Survey Types Survey Design Survey Advantages and Disadvantages Survey Software



As an approach to qualitative research, the aim of IPA is to provide information about how individuals make sense of a certain phenomenon. In most cases, this phenomenon is a significant, life-changing event that the individual has a personal connection with. Although this approach can be used in many academic disciplines, it is mainly utilized in psychology.

First, let’s look at the definition of the word “phenomenology” as described by Mariam-Webster dictionary:


As one of the most interactive forms of research, ethnographic research was mainly used in anthropology before other social sciences also started to utilize it. It is a qualitative research method that involves researchers studying the research participants in their real-life environment. The primary data collection methods used for this purpose are observation and interview.


A case study is a research approach that involves investigating a phenomenon within its context. The researcher conducting a case study explores an event, individual, group, place, etc., to determine the reasons behind the issue. It is an in-depth data gathering process that evaluates all the details that can significantly impact the issue.  Although it is primarily qualitative in nature, quantitative methods are also used depending on the subject. Robert K. Yin defines case study research as follows:


Used in a wide range of humanities and social science disciplines such as education, anthropology, psychology, public relations, linguistics, sociology, discourse analysis is an approach to analysis of written, verbal and non-verbal language in its social context. It examines vocabulary, grammar, text type, structure, etc.

The term was first coined by linguist Zellig Harris who defined discourse analysis as:


Researchers generally use two forms of research which include primary research and secondary research. In primary research, the researcher gets first-hand data on the issue with the help of interviews, observations, surveys, and other data collection methods, while secondary research involves using already existing data to form a theory and draw a conclusion. While using either of them depends on the research objectives and resources, researchers usually use both of them to have a broader view of the issue.


A research proposal is written in order to give an overview of the planned research in scientific or academic fields. It has the same objective in both cases – to include details of the project, but it can have different structure across different areas. It is designed to inform the interested parties about what to expect from the research. In academic circles, the research proposal is written to get admission to a PhD or other similar degrees.

What does a research proposal include?



Participatory action research (PAR) is one of the most effective research approaches and helps to get better results than traditional research in some fields. In this form of research, researchers cooperate with the participants – people who are the main subjects of the research. In other words, people have an active input in the results. Hence, it is also called community-driven research. In PAR, even though researchers moderate the research, participants have equal contributions. The two sides work like colleagues.