As one of the most interactive forms of research, ethnographic research was mainly used in anthropology before other social sciences also started to utilize it. It is a qualitative research method that involves researchers studying the research participants in their real-life environment. The primary data collection methods used for this purpose are observation and interview.


A case study is a research approach that involves investigating a phenomenon within its context. The researcher conducting a case study explores an event, individual, group, place, etc., to determine the reasons behind the issue. It is an in-depth data gathering process that evaluates all the details that can significantly impact the issue.  Although it is primarily qualitative in nature, quantitative methods are also used depending on the subject. Robert K. Yin defines case study research as follows:


Used in a wide range of humanities and social science disciplines such as education, anthropology, psychology, public relations, linguistics, sociology, discourse analysis is an approach to analysis of written, verbal and non-verbal language in its social context. It examines vocabulary, grammar, text type, structure, etc.

The term was first coined by linguist Zellig Harris who defined discourse analysis as:


Researchers generally use two forms of research which include primary research and secondary research. In primary research, the researcher gets first-hand data on the issue with the help of interviews, observations, surveys, and other data collection methods, while secondary research involves using already existing data to form a theory and draw a conclusion. While using either of them depends on the research objectives and resources, researchers usually use both of them to have a broader view of the issue.


A research proposal is written in order to give an overview of the planned research in scientific or academic fields. It has the same objective in both cases – to include details of the project, but it can have different structure across different areas. It is designed to inform the interested parties about what to expect from the research. In academic circles, the research proposal is written to get admission to a PhD or other similar degrees.

What does a research proposal include?



Participatory action research (PAR) is one of the most effective research approaches and helps to get better results than traditional research in some fields. In this form of research, researchers cooperate with the participants – people who are the main subjects of the research. In other words, people have an active input in the results. Hence, it is also called community-driven research. In PAR, even though researchers moderate the research, participants have equal contributions. The two sides work like colleagues.


Technological advances, especially the internet, opened new horizons for almost all scientific fields. As an integral part of science, research also took advantage of the benefits internet brought. Now, it is practically impossible to imagine any researcher who doesn’t use the internet for research purposes in one way or another. For instance, currently, using the internet is the best way to measure customer satisfaction. Thousands of companies around the world use it for this purpose.

Let’s look at some of the advantages the internet brings for researchers.



Open research, also called open science, is one of the forms of research that offers an interactive research process for the individuals involved. As the name suggests, open research projects conducted by researchers are open to their peers or to the general public. Depending on the nature of the research, the project can be open access only. It means the data used during the research is available to the public, but the public is not able to contribute to research.