A research proposal is written in order to give an overview of the planned research in scientific or academic fields. It has the same objective in both cases – to include details of the project, but it can have different structure across different areas. It is designed to inform the interested parties about what to expect from the research. In academic circles, the research proposal is written to get admission to a PhD or other similar degrees.

What does a research proposal include?



Participatory action research (PAR) is one of the most effective research approaches and helps to get better results than traditional research in some fields. In this form of research, researchers cooperate with the participants – people who are the main subjects of the research. In other words, people have an active input in the results. Hence, it is also called community-driven research. In PAR, even though researchers moderate the research, participants have equal contributions. The two sides work like colleagues.


Technological advances, especially the internet, opened new horizons for almost all scientific fields. As an integral part of science, research also took advantage of the benefits internet brought. Now, it is practically impossible to imagine any researcher who doesn’t use the internet for research purposes in one way or another. For instance, currently, using the internet is the best way to measure customer satisfaction. Thousands of companies around the world use it for this purpose.

Let’s look at some of the advantages the internet brings for researchers.



Open research, also called open science, is one of the forms of research that offers an interactive research process for the individuals involved. As the name suggests, open research projects conducted by researchers are open to their peers or to the general public. Depending on the nature of the research, the project can be open access only. It means the data used during the research is available to the public, but the public is not able to contribute to research.


Research ethics include moral principles that every researcher should follow in their works. Research misconduct is deviance from such standards and is considered one of the most serious issues when it comes to research. It puts the reliability of research under the question. According to The Office of Research Integrity, research misconduct is:


Researchers or companies in general use different forms of research techniques and methods according to issues they deal with. Especially large companies have a large number of issues or plans they have to sort out every day. Finding effective solutions for important issues plays a significant role in a company or organizational survival.  Operations are all the activities companies carry out on a daily basis. What is the role of operations research in all these?


While conducting research, one of the essential things that need to be acknowledged is research ethics. Before explaining research ethics and what they involve, let’s look at the meaning of the word “ethic” as explained by Mariam-Webster dictionary:


While doing qualitative content analysis, researchers check different feedback - words, ideas, concepts used by the target groups, research participants, and look for the meaning behind that feedback. By analyzing the relationship between the feedbacks, they find trends that let them draw a conclusion. It is the interpretation process of the meaning behind the speech, newspaper article, TV show, etc. There are two approaches to content analysis: