Research ethics include moral principles that every researcher should follow in their works. Research misconduct is deviance from such standards and is considered one of the most serious issues when it comes to research. It puts the reliability of research under the question. According to The Office of Research Integrity, research misconduct is:
Researchers or companies in general use different forms of research techniques and methods according to issues they deal with. Especially large companies have a large number of issues or plans they have to sort out every day. Finding effective solutions for important issues plays a significant role in a company or organizational survival. Operations are all the activities companies carry out on a daily basis. What is the role of operations research in all these?
While conducting research, one of the essential things that need to be acknowledged is research ethics. Before explaining research ethics and what they involve, let’s look at the meaning of the word “ethic” as explained by Mariam-Webster dictionary:
While doing qualitative content analysis, researchers check different feedback - words, ideas, concepts used by the target groups, research participants, and look for the meaning behind that feedback. By analyzing the relationship between the feedbacks, they find trends that let them draw a conclusion. It is the interpretation process of the meaning behind the speech, newspaper article, TV show, etc. There are two approaches to content analysis:
Research projects are done using various methods, as well as by different individuals. Sometimes companies hire researchers to conduct research for them, and in some cases, they opt for their own employees who already work in the same field the research carried on. In other words, employees become researchers in their working area. They are called expert researchers because they have more in-depth insights into the issues and may have more effective results with the research.
Whether written by a scholar, student, or writer, a written piece goes through several stages before it is ready to be published or handed over to somebody. The last step in this process is proofreading. It mainly involves rereading and checking errors in the text. They can be minor spelling and punctuation errors or grammatical mistakes. It is essentially part of the editing process. Editing text means changing content, adding or removing information, making structural changes, as well as finding and correcting punctuation mistakes, typos, etc.
Based on the purpose and available resources, researchers conduct empirical or non-empirical research. Researchers employ both of these methods in various fields using qualitative, quantitative, or secondary data. Let's look at the characteristics of empirical research and see how it is different from non-empirical research.
Historical research is a process of collecting and interpreting data about past events or ideas in order to find how they affected the present events and ideas. It studies possible reasons behind certain events to explain their influence on the events that followed. Historical research may not just help to figure out connections between past and present events, it can also provide the researchers with information regarding possible future events. In his book “Historical Research: A Guide” (2002), W.H.McDowell defines historical research as: