One of the principal methods of collecting data is observation. This research technique is primarily used for qualitative research to gather data about people, objects, events, behaviours, etc., in their natural setting. Researchers watch, listen, take notes, and also record video/audio in their surroundings to get first-hand information on the research topic. There are two approaches to observation:


We may perform research for academic or business purposes, and in both cases, we need to gather information using different data collection methods. These methods vary depending on the method availability or objectives of the research. The main research types – quantitative and qualitative research may require specific strategies, and in some instances, some of the methods may be used for both forms of research.


Taking notes while listening to an audio/video file is easy because you can rewind the recording any time and write anything you missed. It is different when it comes to taking notes during the live talk. You may need to take notes during the lecture or an event. In all cases, you need to be prepared both before the talk and during the talk. The following tips may be useful for taking notes while actively listening to the speaker.


In the age of technology, it is sometimes extremely difficult to avoid plagiarizing someone's work, considering the size of information on the internet. The Cambridge Dictionary explains the term "plagiarism" as "the process or practice of using another person's ideas or work and pretending that it is your own." It happens deliberately most of the time; however, it can also result from forgetfulness.

We will look at this issue in terms of writing and offer some tips on how to avoid it.


Paraphrasing is part of the writing process. If you want to use a sentence or a passage from one source, you can do it in two ways. You can either keep it the same in quotation marks or can change the words and structure. In other words, paraphrase it. It is important that the general meaning of that sentence/passage remains the same. It goes without saying that you should add citations showing information about the original author, book, page, or anything available. Otherwise, you may have to deal with plagiarism.


A summary is an overview of a piece of writing, formulated into your own words. When we write a research paper, essay, or article, we may need to use other authors’ information. We can use that information by summarizing the major points and citing the writer and work. We can also summarize something we read in order to remember it better. Another form of summarizing can usually be seen on the back cover of a book, where there is a very brief summary of the entire book. Let’s take a look at some tips that can be used to summarize the writing as effectively as possible.


Qualitative data analysis (QDA) is a non-numerical method of analysing data. This method is used in various areas such as psychology, sociology, political science, ethnography, marketing research, public health, and other social sciences. Conducting qualitative research requires working with a large amount of data. In the age of technology, there are several tools to assist researchers with an enormous workload. Computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software (CAQDAS) is created for this purpose.



“Writing is an exploration. You start from nothing and learn as you go.”
E.L. Doctorow


We all write. Some write full time because of work, some write essays for exams, and others write on social media. Whether we are a professional writer or write occasionally, we always need to perfect our writing skills in order to convey our ideas more effectively. But what can we do about it?  Let’s go through some tips.