Participatory action research (PAR) is one of the most effective research approaches and helps to get better results than traditional research in some fields. In this form of research, researchers cooperate with the participants – people who are the main subjects of the research.


Technological advances, especially the internet, opened new horizons for almost all scientific fields. As an integral part of science, research also took advantage of the benefits internet brought.


Open research, also called open science, is one of the forms of research that offers an interactive research process for the individuals involved. As the name suggests, open research projects conducted by researchers are open to their peers or to the general public.


Research ethics include moral principles that every researcher should follow in their works. Research misconduct is deviance from such standards and is considered one of the most serious issues when it comes to research.


Researchers or companies in general use different forms of research techniques and methods according to issues they deal with. Especially large companies have a large number of issues or plans they have to sort out every day.


While conducting research, one of the essential things that need to be acknowledged is research ethics. Before explaining research ethics and what they involve, let’s look at the meaning of the word “ethic” as explained by Mariam-Webster dictionary:


While doing qualitative content analysis, researchers check different feedback - words, ideas, concepts used by the target groups, research participants, and look for the meaning behind that feedback.


Research projects are done using various methods, as well as by different individuals. Sometimes companies hire researchers to conduct research for them, and in some cases, they opt for their own employees who already work in the same field the research carried on.


Whether written by a scholar, student, or writer, a written piece goes through several stages before it is ready to be published or handed over to somebody. The last step in this process is proofreading. It mainly involves rereading and checking errors in the text.


Based on the purpose and available resources, researchers conduct empirical or non-empirical research. Researchers employ both of these methods in various fields using qualitative, quantitative, or secondary data.